The hydrography is the part of the geography who takes care of the description of the waters of planet Earth . The concept is also used to name the set of waters from a region or from a country.
For example: “This scientist is one of the most renowned hydrography experts in the country”, “The hydrography of Brazil is very rich”, "The environmental organization called for the protection of national hydrography".
Hydrography studies characteristics such as flow , he bed , the basin and the river sedimentation of inland waters. It is usual to consider the watershed of a River as a specific natural region and that detailed analyzes of its specificities are developed.
It is known as watershed to the territory that is drained by a single natural drainage system (a river that flows into a sea or an endorheic lake). Another important notion for hydrography is the idea of hydrographic network , a network of superficial transport of water and sediments.
A hydrographic slope , on the other hand, it is formed by a set of rivers with their respective tributaries that flow into the same sea. The rivers that form the hydrographic slope usually have similar characteristics.
It is important to distinguish between hydrography and hydrology . Hydrology is the geographical science dedicated to the study of the distribution and properties of the waters present in the earth's crust and in the atmosphere. This science, therefore, studies the humidity soil, rainfall and glacier masses, among other topics.
Despite its differences, hydrography is related to hydrology, as well as to the geology and climatology, among other sciences. It is correct to say that the main point studied by hydrography is the continental water resources, that is, the fresh water that is available for human use, an element of great importance for a few decades.
The human being needs these water resources to satisfy his needs more basic, such as hygiene and food; Do not forget that drinking water is essential for our health, since it is an essential nutrient for most of the functions of our body. On the other hand, science has shown that 60% of our body is composed of fluid; All our tissues have a certain percentage of water, including bone and capillary.
Hydrography, therefore, is a fundamental science for our developing and our survival as a species, since we are in an era in which we depend on an intense and constant research work by a portion of society to be able to feed and grow properly, unlike the rest of the animals that face The world with its own tools.
From the point of view of hydrography, rivers have a large number of possible uses, which are detailed below:
* plantation irrigation agricultural;
* navigation and creation of river channels and ports;
* hydroelectric power production in jumps and dams, both natural and artificial;
* creation of parks for tourism and recreation, in which activities such as swimming and other sports can be carried out;
* Given the wealth of minerals found in much of its channels, mining takes advantage of them to obtain metals (gold and silver) and materials used for construction (sand and gravel).
Hydrography is structured nationally in several countries, and there is also an international organization in the Principality of Monaco that coordinates hydrographic information, called International Hydrographic Organization and founded in 1921.