Before entering fully into the meaning of the term phylogeny, we will proceed to know its etymological origin. In this case, we can state that it is a word that is a neologism and that derives from Greek, since it is the result of the sum of several lexical components of that language:
-The noun "phylon", which can be translated as "tribe" or "race."
-The root "gene", which is synonymous with "produce."
-The suffix "-ia", which is used to indicate "quality".
The idea of phylogeny it is used in the context of the biology to allude to origin and evolution of species . The concept can also refer to the branch of this science that focuses on the kinship ties that exist among the various sets of living beings.
From the theory of the evolution driven by the English scientist Charles Darwin , it became necessary to know the evolutionary history of each species. Phylogeny arose with the aim of studying evolutionary relationships, analyzing how the characters of the various taxa are distributed.
This data allows you to create phylogenetic trees , which detail the evolutionary relationships between those species They have an ancestor in common. Phylogenetic trees, in turn, allow the development of phylogenetic classification which establishes the evolutionary closeness between the species.
To know the phylogeny of an organism, its DNA , its anatomy and morphology, among many other features. The results of this kind of study allow us to know the similarities and differences between species and thus establish their evolutionary relationships.
A clade It is a group consisting of an ancestor and all of his descendants. Also called monophyletic group , consists of the common ancestor (a kingdom , a species or a population) and of all the organisms that descend from it. If a descendant is excluded from this group, it is called paraphilic group . Meanwhile, groups composed of species that descend from more than one ancestor are known as polyphyletic .
In the same way, we cannot ignore the importance of what is known as human phylogeny. Specifically, this discipline has among its main objectives to know and understand what are the bases of evolution, to discover the origin of Darwin's theory and, of course, to establish the connections between humans, relatives and ancestors.
In what is the phylogenetic tree of the human being we find modern prosimians, the New World monkeys, the Old World monkeys, the gibbon, the orangutan, the gorilla, the chimpanzee and the man.
Precisely starting from that the timeline in the evolution of the human being is made up of the following figures that come to determine how it has reached the current man: pliopitecus, proconsul, dryopithecus, oreopithecus, ramapithecus, autralopithecus, paranthropus, advanced australopithecus, homo erectus, early homo sapiens, solo man, rhodesian man, neanderthal, gro-magnon man and modern homo sapiens.