It is known as structured cabling to the system of cables, connectors , channeling and dispositives that allow to establish a telecommunications infrastructure in a building. The installation and system features must meet certain standards to be part of the structured cabling condition.
In this way, the attachment of structured cabling to a standard allows this type of systems offer flexibility of installation and independence of suppliers and protocols, in addition to providing ample capacity for growth and being easy to manage.
In these cases, the routing is usually developed with twisted pair copper cable (for type networks IEEE 802.3 ), although it can also be used fiber optic cable or coaxial cable .
What allows structured cabling is to transport, within a building or enclosure, the signals that come from a transmitter to its corresponding receiver. It is, therefore, a physical network that can combine UTP cables , connection blocks and adapters, among other elements.
By supporting various telecommunications devices, structured cabling allows it to be installed or modified without having prior knowledge about the products that will be used on it.
At the time of laying, the wiring extension, the segmentation of the wiring must be taken into account traffic, the possible appearance of electromagnetic interference and the possible need to install virtual local networks.
Among the main elements of the structural wiring system are the horizontal cable (which runs horizontally between the floor and the ceiling), the vertical cable , trunk or backbone (which interconnects different rooms) and the telecommunications room (with the teams of telecommunications).
Another of the concepts related to structured cabling is the grounding and bridging system; It is a fundamental component in a modern cabinet. The purpose of this resource is to divert any improper supply of electric current to the ground. dispositives that are within the reach of users, which happens following an error in the isolation of active drivers.
It is worth mentioning that the plans do not always indicate the existence of grounding (also known as ground wire, well to land or ground connection, among other names it receives), and may be unique for circuits or branches that are in contact with trays, pass boxes or ducts. The installation of safety ground cables is carried out in the subsoil.
On the other hand is the capacitance, also called electrical capacity (ownership of a body to conserve a load electric), which may cause distortions in the signal transmitted by a cable. The capacitance increases the longer the cable and the thinner the insulation layer. A cable tester can be used to measure capacitance, which can help determine if it has been stretched or folded.
Depending on the category of a net, its speed varies considerably; observing the seven between 1 and 6A, said value is: less than 512 kbit / s; 4 Mbit / s; 10 Mbit / s; 16 Mbit / s; 100 Mbit / s; 1 Gbit / s; 10 Gbit / s Some of them have very specific uses, or known limits: 1 is used in telephone communications and its low speed does not make it suitable for transmitting data; 3 is used for 10BaseT networks (an ethernet configuration, a local network standard); 4 is for Token Ring networks (an architecture created by IBM).
It is worth mentioning that there are always portions of the transmission lines that are subject to background noise from the transmitter, other lines or external sources. East noise, in turn, mixes with the signal and generates a slight distortion.