The Energy is the natural resource that, thanks to the application of technology , can be used industrially. The term also refers to the ability to transform or move something.
Photovoltaic On the other hand, it is an adjective that allows the naming of what belongs to or related to the generation of electromotive force from the light.
It is known as photovoltaic energy Well, the kind of electricity (electrical energy) that is obtained directly from the rays of the Sun thanks to the quantum photo-detection of a device. The photovoltaic energy allows to produce electricity for distribution networks, supply isolated homes and power all kinds of devices.
These devices are called Photovoltaic cells when they have a semiconductor metal sheet, or Thin layer if they have metals located on a substrate. Photovoltaic cells can be divided into monocrystalline (with a single silicon crystal), polycrystalline (composed of multiple crystallized particles) or amorphous (if the silicon has not crystallized).
The union of several of these cells it is known as Photovoltaic module . These modules provide direct electrical current that can be transformed into alternating current through an apparatus called an inverter. Thus, the electrical current produced by the photovoltaic modules can be injected into the electrical network.
The leading manufacturer of photovoltaic panels in the world is Japan , followed by Germany . It is important to note that the growth of photovoltaic installations is limited by the lack of raw material (quality silicon) in the market, although the situation tends to reverse.
One of the most significant advances in this field is due to the creation of a solar cell formed by a layer of perovskita, a hybrid material (organic and inorganic) very economical to produce and easy to synthesize, which is placed between two other layers of ultra-thin semiconductors. In total, the thickness of this cell developed by a team of researchers in charge of Hendrik Bolink does not exceed half a micron (which is equivalent to dividing a meter into a million).
The news of the use of perovskita to solve some of the problems related to the construction of solar panels it was published at the end of 2013, and the institutions that are behind all the research work and developing they are the Molecular Science Institute (ICMol) of the Science Park of the University of Valencia and the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne (EPFL) of Switzerland.
Bolink, who since 2003 has been in charge of a research team on molecular optoelectronic devices and has authored more than a hundred articles in journals of scientific interest, said that for the preparation of perovskite they were used processes of low temperature, similar to those used in the printing press, thanks to which it was possible to manufacture the photovoltaic devices on glass sheets or plastic sheets, in order to make them flexible.
In addition to its low cost and simple manufacturing, another advantage of perovskite is that it allows the creation of semi-transparent devices; This, added to its discrete thickness and lightness, opens the possibility of placing sheets on the windows of the buildings, to filter the Ray solar while generating electricity. This particular application has already been evaluated by several construction companies, and they have shown a lot of interest.
It should be mentioned that for the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, a material known as silicon crystalline, which has a very high cost, or cadmium and cadmium sulfide, its economic alternatives but with raw materials difficult to obtain and very polluting. Perovskite is economical and environmentally friendly, and promises a future in which harnessing solar energy to generate electricity is available to everyone.